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Waste Plastic Extruder: Literature Review
From Open Source Ecology
The following literature review has been conducted as part of the Waste plastic extruder for Mech 461.
- 1 Searches
- 2 Open Source Rapid Prototype Technology and Potential Applications
- 2.1 J. M Pearce, C. Morris Blair, K. J. Laciak, R. Andrews, A. Nosrat and I. Zelenika-Zovko, “3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development”, Journal of Sustainable Development 3(4), pp. 17-29 (2010). http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/view/6984
- 2.2 [email protected] Project, www.fabathome.org.
- 3 Parallel Technologies
- 4 Plastic and Plastic-Composite Materials
- 4.1 S.P. Ladamy, K.C. So, “Optimal Recycling of Waste Materials in a Plastic Extrusion Production Process”. European Journal of Operational Research, 79(1994), pg 13-24.
- 4.2 R. Hettema, J. Pasman, L.B.P.M Janssen, “Reactive Extrusion of Recycled Bottle Waste Materials”, Polymer Engineering and Science, April 2002, Vol. 42, No. 4.
- 5 Extrusion Process and Technology
- 6 Existing Waste Plastic Extrusion Technology
- 7 Links
Waste plastic extrusion RepRap [email protected] Open Source Rapid Prototyping
Open Source Rapid Prototype Technology and Potential Applications
J. M Pearce, C. Morris Blair, K. J. Laciak, R. Andrews, A. Nosrat and I. Zelenika-Zovko, “3-D Printing of Open Source Appropriate Technologies for Self-Directed Sustainable Development”, Journal of Sustainable Development 3(4), pp. 17-29 (2010). http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jsd/article/view/6984
- Discusses evolution of Open Source 3D (OS3D) rapid prototyping technology.
- Expresses potential uses of OS3D as a sustainable development tool, along with increased internet access and material availability.
- Summary of potential applications and limiting factors on utility
- Identifies future areas of research to improve OS3D technologies, make them more applicable in a developing world context.
- Specifically, relating to this project, states that research is needed in creating feedstock from locally available materials.
[email protected] Project, www.fabathome.org.
- Similar project to RepRap and RapMan.
- Developed at Cornell University by Hod Lipson and Evan Malone.
- Uses open source developed hardware and software. Software programs have been specifically developed for the [email protected] but are open source.
- Extrusion uses a syringe/piston based system – can handle diverse materials.
Plastic and Plastic-Composite Materials
S.P. Ladamy, K.C. So, “Optimal Recycling of Waste Materials in a Plastic Extrusion Production Process”. European Journal of Operational Research, 79(1994), pg 13-24.
- Recycling process overview.
- Recyled plastic mixed with virgin material to retain engineering properties
- Less virgin material in plastic each cycle
- Authors attempt to determine optimal number of cycles of mixing reclaimed and virgin material
- Based on factors such as sale price, value of recovered waste material, raw material cost, production, etc.
- Numerical model developed to determine optimum cycling.
- Some useful insights into engineering properties of recycled plastics.
- Virgin material mixing may be utilized.
R. Hettema, J. Pasman, L.B.P.M Janssen, “Reactive Extrusion of Recycled Bottle Waste Materials”, Polymer Engineering and Science, April 2002, Vol. 42, No. 4.
- States challenges of plastic recycling
- mixing waste streams (ie. HDPE and PP) results in undesirable engineering properties.
- hard to recreate properties of virgin material
- Authors conducted experiments with reactive extrusion (chemicals added during process)
- peroxides added during extrusion process.
- found to be beneficial in improving properties such as toughness
- Extrusion settings also tested for effects on material properties.
- mass flow rate, screw speed and termperature tested.
- linkage found between these parameters and % elongation, Young's modulus and yield strength.
- Reactive extrusion could be explored to improve properties of expanded materials. Need to ensure such chemicals are domestically available in a development setting.
- Extrusion parameters will have to be tested to determine optimal conditions for quality feedstock production.
Extrusion Process and Technology
O. Vongeheur, “ Fundamentals of Extrusion”, Candy Industry. January 2008.
- Basic outline of extrusion processes
- describes major steps in extrusion and examines three methods – screw, piston and roller
- Originally written for Candy Industry – therefore may not apply to RepRap. But does describe mechanical processes for plastic
- Note also that RepRap extruders have been designed to extrude paste, as has the piston system of [email protected]